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  Electrically Conductive Adhesives
Posté par : ting188a - Il y a 11 heures - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

Shielded Cable: When To Use


    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is prevalent throughout the factory floor. This is why data and signal cables are usually protected with insulated conductors and wrapped with a conductive layer. Shielding reduces electrical noise and reduces its impact on signals and also lowers electromagnetic radiation.  Shielding prevents crosstalk between cables near each other. Shielding not only protects cable but it can also protect machinery and people as well.


    Power cables are constructed to be electromagnetic compatible (EMC) to minimize noise generation, which affects many other systems like radio and data communication.


    Communication cables are shielded to prevent the effects on the data transmitted from EMI. To further prevent cross talk and coupling, communication cables are also paired and individually shielded.


    In some applications, such as those needing servo cables, double or even triple shielding is required: around individual conductors, around twisted pairs, and around the entire cable.


    Some applications do not require shielded cables. For example, if a cable will be used in a cabinet or otherwise away from other sources of noise, it does not need to be shielded, as it will be protected from noise and EMI already.


    Cable shielding uses either a braided, spiral design or metal-coated Mylar or foil shield. The shielding wraps around each conductor to mitigate noise by 85% to 100%, depending on the configuration. The maximum shielding a braided shield can have is 90%. Spiral shields can offer 98%, while metal-coated Mylar can deflect 100% of EMI.


    Using a thin layer of Mylar or aluminum foil eliminates the gaps you may encounter with braided designs. The foil is attached to a polyester backing to provide 100% coverage. However, because it is thin, it can make applying connectors a challenge. Foil shielding can also be damaged in high-flex applications, so spiral or braided designs work best there.


    Just as described, braided shielding is made of a mesh of bare or tinned copper wires woven together. It is easy to terminate when crimping or soldering a connector. Because of the braiding, small gaps of coverage do occur, thus resulting in the only 90% shield rating. If the cable is not moving or flexing, this coverage should be sufficient. However, the braided design does add cost and weight to the final design.


    If an environment is extremely noisy, a cable may use multiple layers of shielding with both the braided and foil designs. Sometimes pairs of wires are shielded individually in addition to the entire cable being shielded. This is done to prevent crosstalk between pairs.


    Unlikely competitor for diamond as best thermal conductor: Boron arsenide potential for cooling applications


    The discovery that the chemical compound of boron and arsenic could rival diamond, the best-known thermal conductor, surprised the team of theoretical physicists from Boston College and the Naval Research Laboratory. But a new theoretical approach allowed the team to unlock the secret to boron arsenide's potentially extraordinary ability to conduct heat.


    Smaller, faster and more powerful microelectronic devices pose the daunting challenge of removing the heat they generate. Good thermal conductors placed in contact with such devices channel heat rapidly away from unwanted "hot spots" that decrease the efficiency of these devices and can cause them to fail.


    Diamond is the most highly prized of gemstones. But, beyond its brilliance and beauty in jewelry, it has many other remarkable properties. Along with its carbon cousins graphite and graphene, diamond is the best thermal conductor around room temperature, having thermal conductivity of more than 2,000 watts per meter per Kelvin, which is five times higher than the best metals such as copper. Currently, diamond is widely used to help remove heat from computer chips and other electronic devices. Unfortunately, diamond is rare and expensive, and high quality synthetic diamond is difficult and costly to produce. This has spurred a search for new materials with ultra-high thermal conductivities, but little progress has been made in recent years.


    The high thermal conductivity of diamond is well understood, resulting from the lightness of the constituent carbon atoms and the stiff chemical bonds between them, according to co-author David Broido, a professor of physics at Boston College. On the other hand, boron arsenide was not expected to be a particularly good thermal conductor and in fact had been estimated -- using conventional evaluation criteria -- to have a thermal conductivity 10 times smaller than diamond.


    The team found the calculated thermal conductivity of cubic boron arsenide is remarkably high, more than 2000 Watts per meter per Kelvin at room temperature and exceeding that of diamond at higher temperatures, according to Broido and co-authors Tom Reinecke, senior scientist at the Naval Research Laboratory, and Lucas Lindsay, a post-doctoral researcher at NRL who earned his doctorate at BC.


    Broido said the team used a recently developed theoretical approach for calculating thermal conductivities, which they had previously tested with many other well-studied materials. Confident in their theoretical approach, the team took a closer look at boron arsenide, whose thermal conductivity has never been measured.


    Unlike metals, where electrons carry heat, diamond and boron arsenide are electrical insulators. For them, heat is carried by vibrational waves of the constituent atoms, and the collision of these waves with each other creates an intrinsic resistance to heat flow. The team was surprised to find an unusual interplay of certain vibrational properties in boron arsenide that lie outside of the guidelines commonly used to estimate the thermal conductivity of electrical insulators. It turns out the expected collisions between vibrational waves are far less likely to occur in a certain range of frequencies. Thus, at these frequencies, large amounts heat can be conducted in boron arsenide.


    How Does Sound Absorbing Material Work?


    Sounds are occurring all around us, at every moment of the day, and some of them are held more clearly than others.


    If you've been trying to soundproof your home and block certain noises, you've likely looked into the marvel of sound absorbing materials and how they can help.


    How does sound absorbing material work?


    A material with sound absorbing properties is able to take the energy created from sound and turns it into another type of energy. These dense but soft materials help to absorb the sound or vibrations as the waves hit it, and it deforms this energy which reduces its effect.


    To give you a better understanding of what sound absorbing materials do, we've created a simple guide that answers all of the questions you need to know. With a simple explanation of the science behind sound and absorption, you’ll be better equipped to choose a soundproofing material that works.


    Without sound, there would be no need for sound absorption methods, so it's a good idea to understand the science behind how it’s made and where it goes.


    A sound wave is created by a vibration that is sent through the air at varying lengths, like when someone yells, and these can be categorized as either high or low-frequency sounds depending on their length.


    A high-frequency sound wave can be reflected by thin materials, whereas low-frequency sound waves pass through them. Any soundwave that’s allowed to continue traveling will make noise unless there are materials or objects in the way.


    When none of this sound is absorbed, it creates noise, and if your goal is to prevent this noise from occurring, you need the right materials and setup to absorb them completely.


    Electrically Conductive Adhesives


    Electrically conductive adhesive products are primarily used for electronics applications where components need to be held in place and electrical current can be passed between them.


    Depending on gap between components, most general adhesives (such as anaerobics, cyanoacrylates, epoxies, and acrylic-based adhesives) act as an electrical insulator. Some offer improved thermal conductivity to help with thermal management of electronic components and heat sinks, directing heat away from sensitive components.  Because in many cases (particularly when using an anaerobic or cyanoacrylate adhesive) there is no glue line control and effectively parts are touching (with adhesives filling in microscopic crevices), some electrical charge can still be transferred as there is enough metal to metal contact still occurring.


    Certain temperature-sensitive electronic components cannot be soldered (as the intense heat of liquid solder and the soldering iron can cause damage to the component). This type of application calls for an electrically conductive adhesive that can be used in place of solder.  PCBs with components attached to both sides can also benefit from using an electrically conductive adhesive as assembly process is easier without risk of components dropping off the underside when parts are soldered on the top.  Using electrically conductive adhesive for an entire electrical assembly negates the requirement to undergo a solder re-flow process.


    Applications for electrically conductive adhesives aren’t just limited to bonding components onto PCBs or die attach, they can be very useful for other electronic applications where substrates are temperature sensitive – such as for touch-panels, LCD displays, coating and bonding RFID chips, and mounting LEDs. Solar cells also use adhesives instead of solder as there is less warpage and damage to the sensitive wafers that make up solar cells.


    Which material is used for electromagnetic shielding?
Typical materials used for electromagnetic shielding include  sheet metal, metal screen, and  metal foam. Common sheet metals for shielding include copper, brass, nickel, silver, steel, and tin. Shielding effectiveness, that is, how well a shield reflects or absorbs/suppresses electromagnetic radiation, is affected by the physical properties of the metal.  These may include conductivity, solderability, permeability, thickness, and weight. A metal's properties are an important consideration in material selection. For example, electrically dominant waves are reflected by highly conductive metals like copper, silver, and brass, while magnetically dominant waves are absorbed/suppressed by a less conductive metal such as steel or stainless steel.

    Further, any holes in the shield or mesh must be significantly smaller than the  wavelength  of the radiation that is being kept out, or the enclosure will not effectively approximate an unbroken conducting surface.


    Another commonly used shielding method, especially with electronic goods housed in plastic enclosures, is to coat the inside of the enclosure with a metallic ink or similar material. The ink consists of a carrier material loaded with a suitable metal, typically  copper  or  nickel, in the form of very small particulates. It is sprayed on to the enclosure and, once dry, produces a continuous conductive layer of metal, which can be electrically connected to the  chassis ground  of the equipment, thus providing effective shielding.


    Electromagnetic shielding is the process of lowering the electromagnetic field in an area by barricading it with conductive or magnetic material.  Copper  is used for radio frequency (RF) shielding because it absorbs  radio  and other  electromagnetic waves. Properly designed and constructed  RF shielding enclosures  satisfy most RF shielding needs, from computer and electrical switching rooms to hospital  CAT-scan  and  MRI  facilities.


  What Is the Difference Between an LVP Product and an SPC Product?
Posté par : ting188a - Il y a 11 heures - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

What Is the Difference Between an LVP Product and an SPC Product?


    When it comes to choosing flooring materials, you have a lot of different options. There are dozens of types of stone, tile, and wood you can use, along with cheaper alternatives that can mimic those materials without breaking the bank. Two of the most popular alternative materials are luxury vinyl plank flooring, and stone polymer composite flooring: LVP and SPC. What’s the difference between them? And which is the best option for your home? Here’s  a brief overview  of these two flooring products.


    What Are LVP and SPC?


    Luxury vinyl planks  are made of compressed layers of vinyl, with a high resolution image overlaid onto them, to mimic the look of another material. Planks are generally used to mimic hardwood, because the shape is similar to real wood planks. The high res image allows vinyl to look like virtually any other material, though, such as stone, tile, and more. LVP has several layers, but the main one is its vinyl core, which makes the planks durable but flexible.


    Stone polymer composite flooring is similar, in that it includes a high resolution image, overlaid onto vinyl and coated with a transparent wear layer to protect the floor from scratches, stains, fading, etc. However, the core material in SPC is a hybrid of plastic and compressed limestone powder. This makes the planks hard and rigid, rather than soft and flexible.


    The two materials are similar in many ways. They’re both waterproof, scratchproof, and generally fairly durable. They’re easy to install yourself, without the use of glues and solvents, and easy to maintain, with regular sweeping to get rid of dust, and a quick mop to get rid of spills. And they’re both significantly cheaper than the materials they’re acting as a substitute for.


    The Differences


    So, besides flexibility, what differences are there between the characteristics of LVP and SPC flooring? The rigid structure of SPC gives it a few advantages. While both can be installed over virtually any solid subfloor, LVP needs its subfloor to be completely level, and free of any dents, obstructions, etc. The flexible material will take on the shape of any imperfections, whereas SPC will keep its own shape, regardless of the floor below it.


    By the same token, SPC is also more durable, resistant to dents and other damage. It will last longer, hold up better to wear. The rigidity of SPC also allows it to provide more support underfoot, while LVP’s pliability gives it a softer, more comfortable feel for walking on. SPC is also slightly thicker than LVP, and its look and texture tend to be a bit more realistic.


    SPC has many advantages over LVP, but it does have one drawback. Its rigid, composite construction makes it more expensive than vinyl. While both are still cost-effective compared to wood, stone, or tile, if you’re on a tight budget, LVP is likely a better bet.


    This is just a brief overview of the two flooring materials. There are plenty of other pros and cons of each, depending on your specific situation. So which flooring material is best for you? Talk to a flooring expert who can help you weigh the pros and cons of stone polymer composites vs. luxury vinyl planks, and decide which one best meets your home’s needs and can serve you in good stead for years to come.


    The Advantages and Disadvantages of SPC Flooring


    SPC flooring  is becoming more and more popular thanks to all its remarkably desirable traits and features. However, how much do you really know about SPC flooring? Nothing is perfect in this world, it is no surprise that  SPC flooring  also carries some downsides with it.


    It is only fair enough if you are made known of the pros and cons of SPC flooring before you join the SPC fanatic troop.


    Here are the lists of SPC flooring pros and cons.


    Rigid core luxury vinyl flooring, also known as  SPC flooring, is the most durable waterproof vinyl flooring option on the market. It has a similar construction to WPC, but it comes with an ultra-tough core, which is where the name “rigid core” comes from.


    So what does SPC stand for? As it turns out, it stands for a couple of terms that are used interchangeably: stone plastic composite or stone polymer composite. It refers to the make-up of the core. The SPC core is what makes this flooring so incredibly durable, maintaining its form even over uneven subfloors.


    That means you can install SPC rigid core luxury vinyl flooring on any level, over almost any existing (hard surface) subfloor and for any amount of traffic.


    WPC Flooring, SPC Flooring and LVT Flooring: What Differences, Similarities and Benefits?


    If you own a modern home or have plans to own one in the future, you must have heard of vinyl floorings. These affordable and stylish flooring options are increasingly becoming the choice of many homeowners and commercial property owners who want to give their living and working spaces a fresh look. 


    There are three main types of vinyl flooring - WPC flooring, LVT flooring and SPC flooring. In terms of market entry, traditional versions of Luxury Vinyl Tile flooring have been in the market for many years. With time, changes in buyer preferences led to the development of advanced flooring solutions that saw rigid core vinyl such as WPC and SPC flooring hit the market.


    Even so, each flooring type comes with its own set of benefits and drawbacks that you need to consider before settling for one. Though different, the three flooring types share several similarities.


    In this article, we explore the benefits, differences and similarities that SPC Vinyl flooring, LVT and WPC floorings have. 


    Before we delve into this, let's first define each of these vinyl flooring:


    LVT Flooring


    Luxury Vinyl Tile is an updated and innovative version of vinyl flooring that is today a top contender when it comes to floor installations in commercial and living spaces. Designed with a real wood, stone or ceramic look, LVT flooring is not just affordable, it is also durable, waterproof and resistant to scratches. 


    SPC Flooring


    Stone Plastic Composite (SPC flooring), also referred to as Rigid Vinyl Plank, is an upgrade of LVT.  SPC vinyl flooring  comes with multiple layers and backing options that make it ideal for homes. Some key aspects that make it stand out include low noise levels, no warping, eco-friendliness and insulation against sound and heat. 


    WPC Flooring


    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) derives its name from the wood-like material used to make it. These materials include a foaming agent known as polyvinyl chloride, plasticisers, wood flour and calcium carbonate. 


    What does Embossed Vinyl Flooring Mean
As you explore the many flooring options available for your home, you may be focused on finding a beautiful material that enhances the décor. Real hardwood flooring is a popular option because of its undeniable charm and wide range of available styles. Many people love the texture of the grain of the wood as well as its richness and sheen. From the sophisticate of deep cherry wood with a smooth sheen to the deep striations and character of oak floors with a textured finish, there is a wood flooring style that is seemingly perfect for most homes. However, wood flooring as its drawbacks. For example, it may easily be scratched, and it should not be exposed to moisture. In addition, it may be one of the more expensive flooring options available. If you are looking for a great alternative to real hardwood flooring without the drawbacks, embossed vinyl flooring or laminate flooring mimics the grain of the wood and may be a more suitable option for your home.

    Before you learn about  embossed  vinyl and laminate flooring, it makes sense to understand how vinyl floors and laminate planks are different than hardwood flooring. These are both synthetic flooring materials that are known for their affordability and durability. Vinyl is usually comprised of a PVC material, and it can be texturized and dyed to mimic the look of many other types of floors. Regardless of whether you choose embossed vinyl planks or tiles,  floating vinyl or glue  installation methods are available.


    Laminate flooring, on the other hand, is comprised of multiple layers of a wood material compressed tightly together. This material is usually fiber board or a type of melamine resin. It is covered with a printed layer that can mimic the look of wood flooring. Laminate also has a wear layer, which could have a textured finish or a smooth finish. It is most commonly available in laminate planks, but you can find tiles as well. The same installation methods that are available for vinyl flooring are available for laminate flooring.


    How to Estimate T-Bar Ceilings
T-bar ceilings, also known as acoustical ceilings, usually are installed to hide overhead ducts and pipes in basements. In other cases, t-bar ceilings in kitchens have flush overhead lighting and water-resistant ceiling tiles. T-bar ceilings consist of a metal grid and ceiling tiles. Taking a few measurements and deciding on the size of the tiles allows you to estimate the cost of materials and installation.

    Determine the square footage of the T-bar ceiling. To do this, measure the length and width of the room and multiply one by the other. In other words, if the room is 20 feet long and 14 feet wide, the square footage is 280 feet. If a measurement isn't exact to a foot, round it up to the next foot.


    Determine the square footage of ceiling tiles based on the square footage of the ceiling. Acoustic ceiling tiles are sold by the square foot in packages that contain eight tiles. The number of packages is not particularly relevant, as long as the square footage is determined.


    Determine the size of the tiles, such as 24-inch square or 24-by-48-inches. If the larger tiles are a preference, determine the direction they will install, such as perpendicular to the long walls or running in the same direction. With this determined, proceed with estimating the grid.


  Variable Speed Compressors for Improved Energy Efficiency
Posté par : ting188a - Il y a 11 heures - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

Variable Speed Compressors for Improved Energy Efficiency



    Energy efficiency is one of the most important factors all businesses are concerned with. The more efficient your air system, the lower your energy consumption and the cheaper your energy bill!


    A vast amount of the energy that is lost in a factory or plant is due to wasted energy in an air compressor installation. This can have a huge effect on energy costs, raising your bills and making your cost of ownership high. Various technologies have been developed to ensure that compressed air systems are performing as efficiently as possible, one such technology is variable speed drives (VSD).


    Traditional air compressors are fixed speed, meaning they run at a constant and consistent speed. This produces a fixed amount of compressed air per minute. There are many benefits to fixed speed compressor technology if your compressed air demand is constant and unchanging. However, this isn’t always the case. As fixed speed compressors are always operating at full-throttle, if all of the output is not required then energy is being wasted.


    Furthermore, fixed speed compressors run unloaded as the stress of an engine start-up would put pressure on the motor. This can be a waste of energy as the machine is running without producing any compressed air. Variable speed compressors avoid this issue by matching the output with the demand created. By simply producing the exact amount of air being used by the downstream equipment, variable speed compressors help to improve plant efficiency.


    Watch this video to see how a fixed speed compressor can be sequenced with a variable speed machine to precisely match output with network demand to save energy.


    Many air compressor installations will benefit from the efficiency variable speed drive technology provides. Whether you are in the food and beverage industry, automotive, medical industry or even manufacturing, there will be times when your demand for compressed air will vary.


    A combination of both variable and fixed speed compressors is thought to be the most cost-effective and advantageous set-up, resulting in the most energy saved and demands met.


    Thermocompressor Installation & Troubleshooting


    A thermocompressor is a steam control device that uses high-pressure steam (motive steam) to induce flow from a lower pressure steam source (suction steam) and discharge the mixture at an intermediate pressure. The high pressure is used to create a high velocity jet that mixes with and accelerates the suction steam. The velocity of the mixture is exchanged for increased pressure in the diffuser. A Kadant Johnson  thermocompressor  is shown above.


    Installation
Thermocompressors can be installed in any orientation, but directing the discharge horizontally or downward is preferred. A thermocompressor should be independently supported. Using the unit to support piping can impose excessive loads and cause bending and misalignment.


    Suction and Discharge Piping
Suction piping must be independently supported. It should be full size to match the suction connection on the thermocompressor. Avoid filters, valves and other fittings that cause pressure loss in the suction line that were not considered in the original design specification. Use low-pressure drop non-return valves and full bore ball or gate type isolation valves in all locations to minimize pressure losses. Avoid low points or loops that might accumulate condensate. A steam pressure gauge with an isolation valve should be located as close to the low-pressure inlet as possible.


    Discharge piping should be the same diameter as the discharge connection on the thermocompressor. Discharge piping must be independently supported. Care should be taken to avoid placing restrictions or undue obstructions that will increase the discharge pressure above the design point. A minimum length of 10 pipe diameters is recommended before an elbow to Tee. A steam pressure gauge with an isolation valve should be located as close to the discharge connection as possible.


    Motive Steam 
The line size should be determined based on the maximum design flow for the thermocompressor. Dry steam is a basic requirement for good performance and wet steam is extremely detrimental to both the performance and the parts of a thermocompressor. Motive pipe runs longer than 10 feet and should have a drip leg and trap to remove condensate from the piping before the motive steam enters the thermocompressor. High-flow losses in the supply lines should be avoided.  As the motive pressure falls, the amount of steam required increases. A steam pressure gauge with an isolation valve should be located as close to the motive connection as possible.


    Troubleshooting
A thermocompressor in the fully open or closed position during run conditions is usually a problem. Accuracy of the instrumentation and controls should be verified.


    Substandard performance can usually be traced to either external or internal causes. Substandard performance can also be classified as either sudden or gradual. A gradual deterioration in performance, usually a loss of recompression, invariably suggests either erosion or corrosion, whereas a sudden loss of compression will usually suggest an external cause.


    Since the external causes of trouble are usually easier to check, they should be investigated first.


    When a fault is investigated, it is prudent to treat as suspect all the gauges fitted, especially Bourdon Tube type dial gauges. These gauges should, whenever it is possible, be recalibrated.


    4 Types of Refrigeration Systems


    Evaporative Cooling


    Evaporative cooling units are also referred to as swamp coolers. They work by blowing warm outdoor air over pads that are soaked in water. The water’s job is to absorb the heat from the air. The water then evaporates and cooler air enters your home while warm air stays out.


    An evaporative cooling unit is capable of reducing the temperature in a home by about 15-40 degrees. If you’re in the southwestern U.S. where the climate is dry, evaporative coolers are for you. An evaporative cooling unit is easier to install and doesn’t cost half as much as a central air conditioner.


    Mechanical-Compression Refrigeration Systems


    Mechanical compression is used in commercial and industrial refrigeration, as well as air conditioning. Most  HVAC companies  install this type of cooling system.


    By mechanically compressing refrigerant into a cold liquid with low pressure and expanding it into hot gas with high pressure, this type of system transfers heat. Refrigerants work when pressure is applied or removed. When they absorb heat, they boil and turn into gas, then turn back into liquid form when they release that heat. The refrigerant in a mechanical-compression system boils at 40 degrees, sucking the heat out of warm indoor air.


    Absorption


    The process in absorption refrigeration is similar to how heat is transferred in mechanical compression. However, instead of using a mechanical compressor, absorption systems use refrigerants that attract and absorb other substances. In some systems, for example, ammonia acts as the refrigerant and water acts as the absorbent. Instead of relying on electric power, heat can come from water, natural gas, steam or other fuel sources.


    Thermoelectric


    These systems don’t need water or any type of refrigerant. They rely on a thermocouple and electric current. One end of the thermocouple is hot and the other end is cool when current is directed to it. The cold side of the thermocouple is placed in the area that needs cooled so it can attract heat and remove it from the air. Thermoelectric refrigeration isn’t usually used for large cooling loads, but it’s perfect for hard-to-access small cooling loads. A good example would be electronic systems.


    What is the difference between a fixed speed and an inverter air con?


    Inverter or non-inverter? This is the question we get quite a lot from homeowners and business owners that want to purchase a new air con. As you already know, different factors such as building size, floor plan, price and energy usage need to be considered in the search for the best results. These days, though, you may find that most air conditioners are inverter models.


    Before you choose an air conditioner, you may wonder: ‘Should I choose a fixed speed or an inverter air con?’ In order to decide which one is better, you must first understand the difference between the two types. 


    Let’s look at the mechanism behind both systems, so that you can make the best choice possible.


    A fixed speed, also known as non-inverter or standard air conditioner, features a single speed motor operation: on and off. Basically, once it reaches the desired temperature, it turns off, then back on when the temperature rises to a set level. In other words, this standard compressor always runs at full speed or stops completely depending on the temperature requirements.


    This model may be a good option if you are on a budget and you want to save on upfront costs. Since there aren’t many components to deal with, repair charges are usually cheaper as well.


    On the other hand, due to their ‘on and off’ cycle, fixed speed air cons use a significant amount of energy. That means they are much less efficient compared to modern technologies. They also fail to keep a constant temperature in your home or office, thanks to the system limitations.


    So if flexibility, performance and energy efficiency are on top of your priorities list, then you may want to take a look at an inverter air conditioner system.


    Inverter technology is typically considered to be a better choice if you’re looking for the optimal domestic or commercial air con performance.


    Technically, the inverter air con controls and varies the speed of the compressor motor, similar to a car. The compressor from the outdoor unit doesn’t have to switch on and off continuously. In exchange, it speeds up or down when necessary in order to keep a constant, comfortable temperature at all times.


    Plus, due to its efficient operation, there is less stress on the compressor, as well as on the other parts of the system. That means you’ll save money not only on electricity but also on maintenance. What’s more, an inverter air con features higher energy ratings than a non-inverter one, which makes it friendly with the environment, too.


    Inverter vs. Non-Inverter Air Conditioner Unit: Pros & Cons


    Singaporean heat is no joke. Homes and offices in Singapore can get so hot that a cooling system has practically been deemed essential nationwide. As something so vital to the comfort of everyday living,  buying the right air conditioner is a must! You’ll need an air conditioner that not only keeps your place cool and comfortable, but suits your specific, individual needs as well. 



    The two popular options for air conditioners in Singapore are the inverter aircon and the non-inverter aircon. Both can cool down or warm your place up—but they’re quite difficult to tell apart! Thus, it’s best to familiarize yourself with each air conditioner type to be able to choose which one would suit your home or business more. 



    In a nutshell, inverter aircons are advanced machines that utilize a controlled compressor, while non-inverter air conditioners are less advanced with a default compressor, though generally less expensive and much more common. Though they may seem similar, the inverter aircon and the non-inverter aircon are distinctive from each other in a myriad of ways such as in functionality, how each unit actually works, their built-in features, and more. Read on to find out the differences between each type!



    Inverter vs. Non-Inverter Aircon: Category Comparison



    Compressor Unit



    This is the main difference between the two systems, as the inverter aircon has a different compressor motor running its system than the non-inverter aircon. 


    The compressor refers to the part of the aircon unit that compresses the refrigerant gas into a liquid form. Once this occurs, the refrigerant begins to cool, creating the cool air that regulates the temperature in the room. 



    Inverter aircons operate with a controllable compressor unit. When cooling or heating is required, the compressor works harder to increase or decrease its output. With a non-inverter aircon, however, there’s no way to control the compressor, and so the non-inverter aircon will cool the room either by operating at either its full capacity or not running at all.



    Functionality and Efficiency



    As an inverter aircon controls the compressor speed and changes the temperature as required, the inverter aircon is a more likely choice for when you need to save electricity, as it limits energy consumption. The way a non-inverter type functions can cause excessive and unnecessary use of energy, and will more often than not inadvertently rack up your electricity bill. Inverter aircons are inherently more energy-efficient and will help you save on your monthly bills. Also, because of this energy-efficient feature, inverter aircons are regarded as an environmentally-friendly system as it uses 30-50% less energy than a non-inverter type.



    Performance



    The inverter aircon is a more versatile and flexible unit due to the controlled compressor system. It will adjust to the temperature you’ve set for the room and will adjust its processes based on what the thermostat senses. This versatility usually makes inverter aircons winners in terms of performance, as non-inverter aircons operate on a fixed level of cooling power. Generally though, both inverter and non-inverter aircons do a fine job of cooling a room, so your decision should take other factors into consideration.



    Costs



    This is probably the one aspect where non-inverter aircons will win out against an inverter aircon, as non-inverter aircons are much cheaper. Really, the primary drawback of an inverter aircon is the initial price to pay upon buying one. Installation costs are also significantly higher with an inverter unit. 



    However, many will argue that the costs involved with an inverter unit should be considered as an investment, as an inverter type is a more versatile and advanced machine compared to a non-inverter. Not to mention, if you’ll be using the AC for long-term, you’ll be saving much more money on electricity bills than if you were to get an inverter-type.


  A Guide to Stainless Steel Kitchen Sinks for Homeowners
Posté par : ting188a - Il y a 11 heures - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

Kitchen Sink Buying Guide

There is a multitude of size options for your new kitchen sink, which can be found as little as 9" in length or exceed 40" for larger spaces. Know the purpose of the sink and how it will be used. For example, if you're looking for a sink to install into your kitchen island to help with food preparation, you likely only need a small prep sink which will be 24" long or smaller.
If replacing your main kitchen sink, you'll want to go a bit larger. The most common sizes for a kitchen sink are 30" or 33", however a standard size could measure anywhere between 24" and 36" in length. The bulk of what you find while shopping will fall within this size range. Generally, sinks up to 30" will contain one large single bowl. These sinks are fantastic for washing larger pots and pans, so they're ideal for bigger families that do a lot of stovetop cooking. If a double-bowl sink is desired, although they do exist, you may have some trouble finding one under 30" in length. Sinks that measure more than 30" in length will usually contain two or more bowls, however, you may still find some single-bowl sinks in these larger sizes. If you like to keep a food prep area separated from your dirty dish bowl, then a double or triple bowl sink may be what you need.
[Image: lc_buying_guide-kitchen-sink-size-3.jpg]Kitchen sinks that are larger than 36" in length are considered oversized sinks. These fit very well into large kitchens, where a small or standard size kitchen sink may get lost in the design. Oversized sinks are also often found in professional kitchens or industrial settings, where large basins can really be taken advantage of.


    Aside from the length of the sink, you should pay close attention to the depth of the basins as well as the width from front to back. Someone who prefers to hand wash their dishes may appreciate a deeper sink for soaking, or a wider sink which provides a bit more room to work.
You may now have an idea of the size you want your new kitchen sink to be, but before you make a decision, you'll need to know what will fit. If you're replacing an existing sink, measure the length and width of the opening where your current sink rests. To do this, you'll likely need to remove the sink. Also measure the depth of the bowls, as a significantly deeper bowl than what you currently have may require alterations to the in-wall plumbing. You'll need to know what will fit, and whether modifications will need to be made to your countertop, cabinet, or plumbing.


    If you're planning to jump from a shallow sink to something with a deeper basin, take some measurements from the existing plumbing. If the basin hangs too low, the sink will not drain properly and modifications may need to be made behind the wall, e.g. lowering the pipe that feeds into the wall. To know how much deeper you can go without modification, measure the length of the pipe that connects the sink drain to the tee below the sink. This pipe is referred to as the tailpiece. If the tailpiece is 2" in length, then you should be able to install a new sink that is 2" deeper than what you currently have with no issues.


    A Guide to Stainless Steel Kitchen Sinks for Homeowners


    The kitchen sink plays a vital role in the modern-day kitchen; it’s so important that you’d struggle to live in a kitchen without a proper sink.


    From cleaning large pots to preparing food, you need to make sure that your kitchen sink is great and absolutely perfect for your kitchen. Stainless steel kitchen sinks are popular due to their flexibility which makes it a good choice for:


   
       
            Homeowners in their kitchens
       
   
   
       
            Kitchens in restaurants or cafes
       
   


    as well as whole other list of uses for a stainless steel sink.


    In this post, we’ll cover the things that you need to know before purchasing a stainless steel kitchen sink.


    Stainless steel kitchen sinks are a good choice for just about any kitchen thanks to its array of good qualities. You’d be hard-pressed to find a kitchen sink as timeless as stainless steel ones which also has the ability to complement kitchen designs nicely.


    Stainless steel sinks are also famous for being  strong and durable. With proper maintenance, stainless steel kitchens are expected to last for  more  than 30 years – a nod to its longevity and satisfactory performance.


    Before you buy a stainless steel kitchen sink, you’ll need to consider some aspects to make your purchase worthwhile.


    This includes:


   
       
            The grades of stainless steel
       
   
   
       
            It’s thickness (also referred to as its gauge)
       
   
   
       
            Insulation and coatings for the sink
       
   
   
       
            Its finish
       
   


    Some other considerations include the number of sinks that you want as well as how you would like it to be mounted, although those factors are less important than the factors listed above.


    It would also be helpful to understand how to maintain and take care of stainless sinks properly. Proper maintenance is essential to ensuring that your sink’s long-lastingness.


    Stainless steel is usually steel that has been mixed with other elements to improve its properties. Think of stainless steel as a material that is mixed with the best of other materials to make a perfect final product.


    The two most important materials to check before purchasing a sink is  chromium  and  nickel. These two materials enhance the properties of stainless steel which make it durable and resistant to corrosion.


    Choosing an Overmount or Undermount Sink


    There are many aspects of a kitchen sink to consider, such as size, depth, dividers, and materials. Deciding whether you are looking for an  over or undermount sink is best decided first, as it will simplify your decisions down the road. Your countertop material will be a key factor in this decision.


    While undermount sinks are currently preferred for looks, overmount can be a better investment in longevity for certain countertop materials like wood. Undermount sinks, currently loved for their smooth look and how they complement stone and solid surface countertops, also get an extra inch or so of depth out of their lower mounting point.


    UNDERMOUNT SINKS


    Undermount sinks have that name because they sit under the counter, so that the the edge of the sink is below the level of the countertop. There are three types of undermount sink installation.


   
       
            Positive reveal- counter stops before the edge of the sink creating a ledge
       
   
   
       
            Negative reveal- counter overhangs the sink a little
       
   
   
       
            Flush- counter and sink edges are aligned
       
   


    Undermount sinks have their advantages and drawbacks. Examine the pros and cons to decide if one is right for your kitchen.


    Pros:


   
       
            ~ Creates attractive, clean lines in your kitchen
       
   
   
       
            ~ Gives you slightly more counter space
       
   
   
       
            ~ Easy to wipe food and liquid messes directly into the sink
       
   
   
       
            ~ Undermount sinks can be deeper for cleaning large pots and pans
       
   


    Cons:


   
       
            ~ Usually more expensive
       
   
   
       
            ~ Professional installation recommended
       
   
   
       
            ~ Risk of chipping the counter edge when moving heavy dishes
       
   
   
       
            ~ Water can get into gap between the sink and the counter, if not perfectly sealed. Top craftsmanship is advised.
       
   
   
       
            ~ Best used with waterproof, non-porous countertops like granite and other types of stone, or a water-resistant composite.
       
   


    Undermount sinks are not appropriate for counters that are not water-tight, such as wood.  Solid surface countertops are recommended for undermount sinks, since some  countertop materials may not be strong enough to support the weight of the undermount sink. Talk to your contractor to be sure that the materials and sealing techniques that they use are suitable for an undermount sink.


    The Great Debate: Top-mount or Undermount Sinks?


    Decisions when undergoing a kitchen renovation or producing your own kitchen – each time you make one you are faced with two more, as if you’re Hercules cutting off the many heads of the menacing Hydra. Unfortunately, we’re not here to provide you an encyclopedia that will inform your conclusions for each and every decision that you will have to make in this overbearing task, but this latest blog instalment by QN Designs will bring you the insight to hopefully make one of those decisions just that little bit easier. Here’s all that you need to know about making the choice between style and convenience, between trend and budget: the choice between having an undermount or a top-mount sink.


    Typically, when you buy a sink you will find that you have the inset bowl as well as a lip lining the edge or outline. For top-mount sinks, if you drop them into a cutout hole within a benchtop, the lip will save the sink from falling straight through and clanging onto the ground. Hence, top-mount sinks are also commonly referred to as drop-in sinks. You may also hear them being called overmount sinks and rimmed sinks for the similar reasons.


    While a top-mount sink sits jovially above the benchtop, an undermount sink is holding on for dear life underneath the countertop. Due to these circumstances, an undermount sink must be specially installed through methods including sandwiching the sink lip between the underside of the benchtop and a support board, bonding the sink to the benchtop using a glue-like epoxy or merely bolting the sink underneath the counter. It altogether allows for a comparatively more streamlined look on the surface where there is no visible lip but instead sports a smooth benchtop surface across the whole space. If you want to stay up to date in terms of kitchen fashion and trends, then undermount sinks are generally considered to be more marketable and in style than your traditional drop-in sinks whom have been around for eras.


    When considering the price of these two sinks, you must be sure to take into account both the cost of supply and the cost of installation. For the aspect of supply, an undermount sink is going to be more expensive than an overmount sink of the same shape and material.


    In terms of installation, undermount sinks are also pricier in comparison and this is quite evident when we consider all the work needed to keep these bodies from losing its stick and falling to the floor while smashing all the plates within. It includes the price of extra materials needed for the job as well as the price of external labor if you are having a third party do the work. In addition, undermount sinks are strongly recommended to be partnered with a sturdy benchtop such as engineered stone, meaning that there is also polishing to be done on the inside edges of the cut out to smooth out any coarse surfaces.


    Is a Double-Bowl Sink Worth the Space?


    If you have an older home, it probably came with a double-bowl kitchen sink. This trend made its rounds at a time when dishwashers were not yet standard in the average American home. The primary purpose of double-bowl sinks was to make dishwashing easier: one bowl for soapy water, the other bowl with clean water for rinsing.


    Nowadays, the double-bowl sink is rarely used for dishwashing. However, this type of kitchen sink does more than make dishwashing easier. Some of the benefits of a double-bowl sink are:


   
       
            It’s ideal for washing large pans and other items that you don’t want to run through the dishwasher.
       
   
   
       
            It helps keep things organized. For instance, you can put dirty dishes in one bowl while you use the other for food preparation.
       
   
   
       
            It makes garbage disposal easier too. You can use the garbage disposal on one side even if the other bowl is full of water or dirty dishes.
       
   


    Today, single-bowl sinks are dominating the  home kitchen designs  arena. Single-bowl sinks have one deep basin without any divider. They offer a number of benefits, including:


   
       
            They provide more space for washing bigger kitchen items.
       
   
   
       
            They do not take as much counter space as double-bowl sinks.
       
   
   
       
            They are ideal for smaller kitchens.


  What Is An Intake Manifold?
Posté par : ting188a - Aujourd’hui, 01:39 AM - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

What Is An Intake Manifold?


    In order to better understand the function and form of the intake manifold gasket, let’s first examine the job of the intake manifold. Found on any vehicle with an internal combustion engine, the intake manifold sits on top of the engine and plays a key role in the combustion process.


    Designed to run on three timed components, air mixed fuel, spark, and combustion; the internal combustion engine relies upon the intake manifold to help it breathe. Featuring a series of tubes, the intake manifold ensures that the air coming into the engine is evenly distributed to all the cylinders. This air is used during the first stroke of the combustion process.


    The intake manifold also helps cool down the cylinders to prevent the engine from overheating. Coolant runs through the manifold to the cylinder heads where the coolant absorbs the heat and reduces engine temperature.


    This brings us to the intake manifold gasket. Typically made from aluminized steel coated in a carbon-based rubber compound, the intake manifold gasket seals the intake manifold to the engine.  High-quality intake manifold gaskets, such as Fel-Pro?, are constructed as one-piece with reinforced edges and linings around each port or runner opening. They must be resistant to decay caused by oils and coolants. The performance of your engine depends upon the quality of the intake manifold gasket.


    If you notice any of the following symptoms, it could be a sign that your intake manifold gasket is wearing out. Consult your professional mechanic for a definitive diagnosis and repair.


   
       
            Coolant leaking from vehicle
       
   
   
       
            Engine overheating
       
   
   
       
            Green, red or yellow leaks under the car
       
   
   
       
            Check engine light comes on
       
   
   
       
            Engine starts to run rough
       
   


    Learn more about  Fel-Pro  quality gaskets  that are designed specifically for the repair environment,  find your  car part, or find  where to buy your auto part  today.


    How To Care For Your Car: Intake And Exhaust Valves


    Engine valves are small, but they play a huge role in keeping your car running smoothly. If there is an issue with the valves, such as bent or  burnt valves, it must be addressed immediately to prevent engine damage.


    What are the symptoms of a bad exhaust valve or bad intake valve? How much will it cost to repair bent or burnt valves? Keep reading to learn the answers to these questions and more.


    What are intake and exhaust valves?


    Intake and exhaust valves are the final component in the valve train system. They are made of hardened metal that must withstand the extreme conditions of the combustion chamber.


    Intake and exhaust valves are responsible for controlling the flow of gases through the combustion chamber. Intake valves let air in, whereas exhaust valves let air out.


    They are shaped to have a slim stem leading to a flatter face, with the intake valves often being larger than the exhaust. Each valve is designed to only move up and down, not side to side.


    When a valve is closed, it sits tightly on the valve seat to stop the flow of air. But when it is open, it separates from the valve seat to allow air to flow through.


    In many modern engines, each cylinder has two intake and two exhaust valves per cylinder.


    How to Tell Your Car Has a Bad Intake Manifold Gasket


    The intake manifold gasket in your car’s engine keeps the various fluids from mixing and leaking. Learn here how to tell if your car has a bad gasket.


    A car's engine creates power through the combustion of air and fuel. In most modern, fuel-injected systems, the air and fuel mix together inside of the component known as the intake manifold. One end of the manifold consists of a single tube through which fresh air flows. The other end consists of multiple smaller tubes, each of which connect to one of your engine's cylinders.
Between the intake manifold and the engine block sits the intake manifold gasket. The intake manifold gasket seals off the small gap between the manifold and the engine, preventing air, coolant, and oil from leaking. Over time, the intake manifold gasket endures a lot of wear and tear. Eventually it may crack or warp in ways that allow leaks to occur.
Unfortunately, many car owners fail to recognize the symptoms that they may be dealing with a bad intake manifold gasket. If you would like to improve your skills at diagnosing this common engine problem, keep reading. This article explains three common symptoms that you may have a bad intake manifold gasket.



    1. Misfiring Engine



    Engine misfires involve one or more cylinders that fail to produce combustion in a given engine cycle. In other words, although air and gasoline flow into the cylinder, the mixture fails to catch on fire. Instead, the uncombusted mix passes out of your engine through the exhaust system. As a result, misfires lead to poor fuel economy and other problems.
Misfires may stem from a large number of problems, including poor ignition timing, excessively worn valves, and corroded spark plugs. Yet damaged intake manifold gasket tend to be one of the most frequently experienced causes of engine misfires. A damaged gasket often fails to create an airtight seal between the manifold and the engine.
This seal failure allows air that should be entering the engine to escape instead. Such a leak alters the engine's air–fuel ratio — one of the most important factors in promoting complete combustion. A bad enough leak may allow enough air to escape that combustion cannot occur at all.



    2. Difficulty Accelerating



    A leaky intake manifold gasket often makes it more difficult for your car to accelerate, even if the problem has not reached the point where it causes misfires to occur. Such power loss stems from the air leaking out of the intake manifold. Not only does this decrease the amount of air that makes it to your engine, but it also creates a vacuum leak for your entire air intake system.
A vacuum leak reduces engine air pressure, no matter how wide your throttle body opens. Thus, depressing the gas pedal often fails to generate the expected acceleration. Instead, your car seems to poke along at a fixed, sluggish rate.


    How To Know Your Intake Manifold Gasket Is Failing and What To Do


    If you think about it, there are things about your car that just don’t make sense. You’ve been told that more air is a good thing for power, that a cold air intake, more scoops, more vents, etc, are a great way to get more performance. Those are technically all true, but let’s walk that line of thinking back a bit by talking about a leaking or damaged intake manifold.


    Can there be  too much? The answer is that though more air is generally good, it’s important to know that unregulated air flowing into the engine can become a massive problem. Extra air coming into the engine that your car’s computer doesn’t know what to do with or where it came from leads to big issues for its air-fuel ratios which, you know, create the oomph that drives your ride. 


    So, a leaking intake manifold is bad. Damage to the component can mess with the coolant system and could cause stalling or worse. What is the intake manifold? Why is it important? Let  The Drive’s  blowhard editors drop some knowledge on you.


    What are the Symptoms of Intake Manifold Failure?


    Symptoms of intake manifold failure can be difficult to identify as such, so it’s important that you are familiar with problems that might seem relatively minor, but which could be an indication of significant intake manifold issues.


   
       
            Difference in air-to-fuel ratio resulting in backfires and rough idlingF
       
   
   
       
            Milky-looking engine oil
       
   
   
       
            Coolant leaking  onto the ground under the vehicle while it is stationary
       
   
   
       
            Regular or quick engine overheating
       
   


    How Much Will Intake Manifold Repair Cost at a Garage?


    Although the cost of replacing an intake manifold will vary depending on the make and model of the car, many estimates have the cost of the part at around $300, with much of the cost of the job coming from labour and time spent on it. This can be a significantly higher sum – as much as $900 – and in some cars it may not be worth going ahead with the job.


    Can K-Seal Fix My Intake Manifold?


    If there is a coolant leak then, in most cases, using  K-Seal, K-Seal HD  and K-Seal Ultimate will help to quickly and permanently stop the leak, saving you a lot of time and money.  Use our simple stockist search facility  to find a bottle and get back on the road.


    What is an Intake Manifold?


    An intake manifold directs the mixture of air and fuel to the right cylinder to be combusted so it can power the engine. Additionally, it conducts  coolant  through to the cylinders in order to reduce the temperature of the engine. The intake manifold is attached to the top of the engine by the intake manifold gasket, which has to be monitored as it is susceptible to cracking under the heat and pressure and allowing coolant or oil to escape.


  How do I know which cables to use?
Posté par : ting188a - Aujourd’hui, 01:37 AM - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

How do I know which cables to use?


    There are a handful of cables that transmit both audio and video signals. For years,  coaxial video  cables were one of the only choices for connecting video components. Coaxial video cables have that famous one-pin connector, sometimes called a stinger, that can either be pushed or screwed into place. Coaxial video cables are now mostly confined to outside connections, such as satellite TV or cable TV lines that come through the wall. A single coaxial cable carries both video and audio signals.


    HDMI  cables are an updated version of DVI.  HDMI  cables were also designed for use with HD components, but their connector is much slimmer, like a large USB cable. HDMI also includes HDCP copy protection. Manufacturers of HDMI cables tend to advertise their product as the only choice for connecting HD video components, but that's not true. DVI cables work equally well. However, if you're using an analog TV, all three work equally well [source:  Cobalt Cable].


    In Europe and the UK, the most popular dual-purpose cable is called  SCART (Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs). SCART cables have fat, 21-pin connectors. In Europe, SCART cables do the work of RCA analog audio cables as well as composite, s-video and component video cables, but they can't carry high-bandwidth digital video or audio signals, such as those necessary for high-definition TVs. HDMI is the preferred cable in Europe for HD components.


    FireWire, or  IEEE 1394,  cables are mostly associated with connecting devices to computers, but a few high-end home theater receivers and HDTVs now come with FireWire ports. FireWire is capable of carrying compressed MPEG-2 video and digital audio. You might use a FireWire cable to connect a digital video camera directly to your home theater system to show off some unedited footage.


    To sum up, here are the cables that you would use for some common home entertainment systems.


    Home stereo system (CD changer, stereo receiver, speakers):


   
       
            Lower-end:  If you're playing regular CDs or MP3s, you'll only need RCA analog audio cables and speaker wire.
       
   
   
       
            Higher-end:  If you want crisper digital audio, go for optical or digital coaxial cables and thicker speaker wire.
       
   
   
       
            Highest-end:  If you want the unparalleled sound of DVD-audio in full surround sound, you'll need special DVD-audio cables and 12-gauge speaker wire.
       
   


    Cable


    Alternatively referred to as a  cord,  connector  or  plug, a  cable  is one or more  wires  covered in plastic that transmit  power  or  data  between devices or locations. The picture is an example of what the  power cord  may look like for your computer or monitor. The power cord is one example of thousands of other cables found in and around computers.


    There are two main types of computer cables, a  data cable  and a  power cable. A data cable is a cable that provides communication between devices. For example, the data cable (i.e.,  DVI,  HDMI, or  VGA) that connects your  monitor  to your computer allow it to display a picture on the monitor. Other popular examples of data cables include the  CAT5,  IDE/EIDE,  SATA, and  USB  cables. A power cable is any cable that powers the device. For example, the power cord that connects to your computer and a  Molex  style cable inside the computer are both good examples of power cables. Below, is a listing of the most common types of cables found with computers and electronics and examples of devices that use them.


    What is a Wiring Harness?


    The wiring harness has been our core business since 1987. Sumitomo Electric Wiring Systems designs and manufactures the highest quality and most reliable wiring harness products for the automotive industry.


    A wiring harness is an organized set of wires, terminals and connectors that run throughout the entire vehicle and relay information and electric power, thereby playing a critical role in “connecting” a variety of components. Power and information travel through this network much like the circulatory and central nervous systems of the human body.


    As cars continue to provide advanced functions, their component parts increasingly require electronics to save space and meet other requirements. Experts at efficient design and configuring complex circuits, SEWS creates wiring harnesses that contribute tremendously to the development and advancement of car manufacturers around the world.


    Medical Cable Assemblies Information


    Medical cable assemblies are designed to connect medical and laboratory instruments and equipment. They transmit power and/or data and usually have an abrasion-resistant jacket that provides relatively low surface friction and mechanical durability. Many are designed with a high degree of flexibility to avoid kinking, and temperature-resistance to withstand autoclave sterilization. Some are disposable.


    Like other cable harnesses, medical cable assemblies consist of individual cables that are banded into a single unit with connectors on at least one end. Medical cables typically comply with application-specific safety and regulatory standards, however, such as ISO 10993-1 for the biological evaluation of medical devices. If the outer jacket of a medical cable assembly will come into contact with a patient’s body, buyers should select products where biocompatible materials are used.


    Types


    There are three major categories of medical cable assemblies: equipment and sub-assembly interfaces, communication interfaces, and patient interfaces.


    Equipment and sub-assembly interfaces  are installed as original equipment and generally replaced only in case of retrofits or upgrades. Often, this type of cable assembly is used with nuclear imaging devices.


    Communications interfaces  use fiber optic, modular local area network (LAN), or serial cables. RS-232, RS-422, RS-423, and RS-485 cables are all used in medical applications.


    Patient interfaces  consist of durable cables that typically require replacement several times during the life of the medical equipment. Sometimes, these assemblies require performance upgrades. Alternatively, they may become damaged by age or repeated use.


    Within the category of patient interface cables, there are several sub types.


    Long-life patient interfaces  include medical cable assemblies for ultrasound imaging and ECG diagnostic testing. These cables are durable, flexible and wear-resistant.


    Limited-use interfaces  include ICU and CCU monitor cables, as well as ECG diagnostic leads. These medical cables are damaged by repeated mechanical stress and exposure to cleaning chemicals, but are designed to last until scheduled replacement.


    Use-only interfaces  include catheters, electro-surgical devices, fetal monitoring cables, and neural simulator lead sets. They are sterilized and packaged in kits, and designed to be discarded instead of cleaned after use.


    When selecting patient-interface products, buyers should consider the cost of replacement vs. cleaning these medical cable assemblies.


    Connectors


    The Engineering360 SpecSearch database contains information on several types of medical cable assembly connectors.


   
       
            BNC connectors  are secure bayonet-style locking connectors, commonly used with A/V equipment, professional test equipment, and older peripheral devices.
       
   
   
       
            DIN connectors  adhere to standards from Deutsches Institut für Normung, a German national standards body.
       
   
   
       
            Digital visual interface (DVI) connectors  cover the transmission of video between a source and a display. DVI connectors may transmit analog (DVI-A), digital (DVI-D), or analog/digital (DVI-I) data.
       
   
   
       
            RJ-45 connectors  are commonly used to transmit serial data.
       
   


    Shielding


    Cable assemblies may feature a type of electromagnetic shielding material, which is wrapped around the cable assembly underneath the outer jacket. Shielding serves to prevent electrical noise from affecting the transmitted signal, and to reduce electromagnetic radiation emission from the cable itself. Shielding is typically comprised of metal braiding, metal tape or foil braiding. A shielded cable assembly may also feature a special grounding wire known as a drain wire.


    How Long Does It Take To Change A Engine Wiring Harness?


    A technician may need to disassemble parts of the vehicle if they are attempting to access the wiring harness in question as it is difficult to reach. According to this example, installing a wiring harness can take no less than an hour or no more than 20 hours (i.e. if complications arise).
I often receive inquiries concerning InterConnect Wiring, like, “Can InterConnect fix or overhaul my wires?”. ” The short answer to that question is, “Yes! “. A new electrical wiring harness may be less costly than the one you’d need to replace an old one or replace it altogether.

    How Do You Replace An Engine Wiring Harness?


   
       
            Check the old and new connectors are the same.
       
   
   
       
            Strip the ends of the wires, then pull out the wire clips to replace the wiring harness.
       
   
   
       
            The wire ends should be twisted a little…
       
   
   
       
            Insulated connections should be coiled to wire harnesses.
       
   
   
       
            The Insulated Connector needs to be melted while the Wiring needs to be replaced.
       
   
   
       
            Using an electrical tape, you can tape the wire to it.


  The Difference Between Liquid Silicone and Gumstock
Posté par : ting188a - Aujourd’hui, 01:34 AM - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

The Difference Between Liquid Silicone and Gumstock


    Throughout history, scientists and inventors have created new solutions to everyday problems. Often times, the original method is only used until a superior solution comes along. At first we used a mechanical printing press, now your local print shop can process an order of 1,000 copies in a matter of minutes. The vehicles that we drive every day have seen vast  improvements  in safety and durability compared to previous models. In the same way, the silicone molding process has also undergone changes. Gumstock molding is a more traditional method, but Liquid Silicone has surpassed it in several ways, here are a few of the differences between the two types of silicone:


    Liquid Silicone vs. Gum Stock


      Gum Stock Silicone, or High Consistency Rubber (HCR) is a type of silicone that has the consistency of a thick putty or dough. It is often used in compression molding by placing the silicone into an open air molding press to form products. This  process  is fairly labor intensive compared to Liquid Injection Molding, especially when you are creating a product that requires specific customization.


    On the other hand, Liquid Silicone has a consistency similar to petroleum jelly and it is made using a two-part system that is mixed as it is used. Liquid Injection Molding makes it much easier and less expensive to create custom features.  At Si-Tech, we use silicone injection molding for all of our customers because it offers many distinct advantages.


    Advantages of Liquid Silicone


    Customization


    Liquid Silicone Injection has made the process of customization much easier compared to Gum-Stock Silicone. Because liquid silicone is injected into two part molding system, customization is simple.  Insert molding is achieved by having two molds, one mold to make the inserts such as colored keys, clear windows, or light pipes. Once the inserts are molded, they are placed into the keypad mold.


    Durability


    Liquid silicone uses a cross-link bond, making keypads more durable than gum-stock. As keypads undergo significant use, liquid silicone keypads have held up much better over time.


    Time & Cost


    Overall, Liquid silicone is a far less labor-intensive process, which means it is also less expensive. The main difference is that the cure time for liquid silicone is about 1/3 less than gum stock. Due to the way the different materials are processed, it can be much more time efficient to use liquid silicone molding – saving you time and money.


    At SiTECH, we only use liquid silicone for all of our products, allowing us to be more dependable in duplicating our processes. We have made silicone products for many industries, and we would love to help you with your next product,  contact us  today!


    When to Use Silicone Lubricant


    Silicone lubricant has many forms, and even more uses to its name! As such, understanding when to use a silicone lubricant vs. when you should be using a dry lubricant for example is important in the effectiveness of the overall lubrication task.


    Silicone lubricant can be used in the forms of an oil, which is non-reactive to most substances, maintains it's greasiness in extreme temperature conditions and does not oxidize, or a silicone spray which is not only water resistant, but also allows you to lubricate those hard to reach places like mechanisms or bearings.


    This article will explore when to use Silicone lubricants specifically, the main uses of a silicone lubricant, knowing what materials to use a silicone lubricant on as well as how to waterproof using a silicone lubricant.


    The main uses for silicone spray lubricant


    As we mentioned earlier, silicone lubricant spray uses are plentiful. Whether you're a professional tradesman, handy man, or someone who uses tools in your day-to-day life, you understand how important it is to keep your tools and equipment working in top condition. Part of that means keeping your tools well lubricated and clean.


    A silicone lubricant spray is an excellent product to use on tools because it of course lubricates, but also reduces friction and helps to drive out moisture. In fact, silicone lubricants are especially handy for wooden tools by preventing the wood from drying out and splintering.


    On the other hand, silicone lubricant sprays can also be used on a wide range of home applications that you may not have thought of! Try lubricating the sliding door track with silicone spray to keep it moving, or extent the life of zippers on clothing, backpacks, sleeping bags, etc. and keep everything moving smoothly.


    When to use silicone spray on rubber parts


    The many uses of silicone spray don't stop there! In fact, the question isn't “what is silicone grease used for?” but rather “what  isn't  silicone grease used for?”. Silicone grease is especially effective at sealing rubber parts, but what's the best silicone spray for rubber? We'll get to that later.


    Have you ever considered how many rubber parts are in your car? Or perhaps your dishwasher? Many day-to-day items that we've all come to rely on are comprised of thousands of rubber parts in varying shapes and sizes.


    Rubber is everywhere!


    Due to rubbers naturally slip resistant nature making it difficult to install, it's not unusual for rubber parts to slip during assembly where an o-ring may get twisted, a heater hose may not be fully inserted, or a gap appears in a waterproof seam. Coating rubber parts prior to assembly helps to avoid some of the aforementioned problems.


    One of the most common uses of silicone spray on rubber parts is that of replacing car window rubber seals. To do so, simply remove the rubber with a flathead screwdriver, scrub the glue with a solvent and sand the metal.


    How often should you use silicone lubricant?


    We've answered the question of “what is silicone grease used for”, but how often should you use it?


    Truthfully, the frequency at which you should lubricate your equipment depends on the equipment itself.


    A high quality silicone lubricant will displace moisture, provide excellent lubrication for rubber, protect and extend the life of your equipment, doesn't allow dust, dirt, oil and grime to stick, as well as prevent parts from sticking and binding.


    For optimal lubrication, most manufacturers will recommend that you keep on top of lubricating your tools and equipment and treating them before they become sticky, or worse – stuck! In fact, silicone is the most slippery of all lubricants, so it's a great choice for items that slide against one another.


    A silicone lubricant can be used to lubricant metal, wood, rubber and plastic – however, dirt and dust tent to stick to the silicone lubricant, so make sure you use it sparingly or use a “dry” version in dirty environments.


    Waterproofing parts with Silicone Lubricant


    Now that we've discussed when to use silicone lubricant, the best lubricant for plastic parts, let's talk about waterproofing using Silicone lubricant.


    Silicone lubricant is a great product for lubricating rubber surfaces, protecting and extending the life of your tools and equipment, does not allow dust, dirt, oil and grime to stick and of course prevents parts from sticking and binding. Further to this, silicone lubricant also displaces moisture to not only help prevent tools and machines from corrosion, but also helps to waterproof parts.


    WD-40 Specialist High Performance  Silicone is your go-to silicone based lubricant spray that works well on all tools, rubber pipes, window seals, linkages, valves, locks, doors, plumbing fittings and belts.


    With just one coat of Silicone Lubricant, you can be sure that your tools and machinery remain clean and conditioned, and functioning smoother for longer. Because it works in all kinds of challenging conditions, you can be sure  WD-40 Specialist Silicone Lubricant  will perform in most types of weather, all year round.


    It also comes with a smart straw applicator – simply flip the flip straw up for hard to reach areas, then flip it down to use the wide angle spray for wider coverage. Whichever way you spray, you can count on the clever 360o  valve to work efficiently, even when the can is turned upside down.


    Prevent your parts from sticking with WD-40 Specialist range


    There you have it – silicone lubricant really does have seemingly endless uses!


    Staying ahead of the curve and ensuring you're on top of your maintenance is essential for successful running of your machinery. And because your tools and machinery are so important, they demand high quality products to keep them working smoothly.


    For those more demanding jobs that just need to be done right, add WD-40 Specialist to your toolbox. For a high quality lubricant that works well on all high-pressured equipment like tools, rubber pipes, window seals, linkages, valves, locks, doors, plumbing fittings and belts, reach for WD-40 Specialist High Performance Lubricant.


    No matter which specialist product you reach for, the decades of science behind WD-40 products and formulas deliver the superior performance you need.


    Reasons Why People Avoid Silicones in Skin Care


    As the crusade for cleaner beauty products continues, skin care ingredients that were once considered standard are rightfully being called into question.


    Take  parabens, for example. Now that we know the once-popular preservatives are also potentially carcinogenic endocrine disruptors, beauty brands are removing them from their formulations and slapping “paraben-free” stickers on  everything. The same for  phthalates,  sulfates, formaldehydes, and a whole host of other possibly dangerous ingredients.


    While most experts support the removal of parabens, phthalates, sulfates, and more from skin care, one group of ingredients that’s made the “free from” lists is still up for debate: silicones.


    On one side of the argument, you have those who say silicones make skin  look  healthier without actually contributing to its overall health.


    On the other side, you have those who say silicones aren’t technically harmful, so there’s no harm in keeping them in skin care products.


    Which side is science on? Well, both. Kind of. It’s complicated.


    “Silicones are a group of semi-liquid substances derived from silica,”  Dr. Joshua Zeichner, a board certified dermatologist with Zeichner Dermatology in New York City, tells Healthline.


    Silica is the main component of sand, but that doesn’t mean that silicones fall under the “natural” umbrella. Silica has to go through a significant chemical process to become silicone.


    Silicones are best known for their  occlusive properties, which is a fancy way of saying that they form a barrier-like coating on the skin that’s resistant to both water and air. Zeichner likens it to a “breathable film.”


    “Used medically, silicones have been 
   
        provenTrusted Source
      to help heal wounds and improve scarring,” says Dr. Deanne Mraz Robinson, a board certified dermatologist and member of the  Healthline advisory board.


    “They have long been used in burn units because they can uniquely heal and protect while allowing the wound to ‘breathe.’”


    Basically, their occlusive nature blocks lacerations from interacting with the outside environment, ensuring that the wound stays in its own little healing “bubble.”


    “They also have a unique texture, giving skin care products a slick feel,” Zeichner says. This sums up the main role of silicones in serums and moisturizers: They make for easy application, lend a velvety texture, and often leave skin looking plump and smooth, thanks to that filmy coating.


    Silicone vs Plastic, Which is Better for the  Environment?


    Plastic isn’t all that fantastic. From the 500 plus years it takes to break down, to the increasing presence of microplastics in the ocean, there are so many reasons why we should reduce our use of  plastic.


    More households are now thinking about how they can find alternatives and use  less plastic. One such alternative that has gained popularity is  silicone.


    But there’s an ongoing debate on the benefits of silicone vs plastic. Is silicone more environmentally friendly than  plastic?


    Is silicone plastic in a different form? And is silicone the answer to leading a more sustainable  life?


    Although silicone looks like plastic in many ways, its chemical composition is  different.


    Silicone is derived from silicon, which is a naturally occurring element. Silicon dioxide, for example, can be found in sand and  quartz.


    However, there is an important distinction between silicon and  silicone.


    Silicon is a naturally occurring element. Silicone is  synthetic.


    Silicone is made by combining the element silicon with other elements, such as oxygen. Silicone comes in many different forms, such as silicone oil, rubber and  resin.


    There’s lots to learn about the chemical makeup of silicone and how it differs to silicon.  Live Science  has more technical details about the differences between the two  materials.


    There’s a reason why the battle of silicone vs plastic has been quietly gathering pace. And why silicone has become so popular as an alternative to plastic over the  years:


   
       
            Silicone can be moulded into a variety of shapes – like some  plastics.
       
   
   
       
            Silicone is highly durable, making it great to use as an adhesive, sealant or as  insulation.
       
   
   
       
            Silicone is capable of withstanding both high and low temperatures.   
       
   


    Plumbers Grease Vs Silicone Grease (Compared)


    When it's time to lubricate plumbing components, it's essential to know what to use and what to avoid.


    The market is flooded with products and each one promises a set of advantages. The two types of grease you will come across are – plumbers grease & silicone grease.


    This can often lead to a comparison of plumbers grease vs silicone grease.


    Plumbers grease is commonly used for non-consumed water sources in plumbing setups. In comparison, if there is potable water being ingested from the plumbing fixture, it’s recommended to use silicone grease. This is due to the toxic chemicals found in plumbers grease that should not be consumed by humans.


    For the most part, both types of grease are effective at lubricating the fixture. However, it comes down to your safety.


    This article will dive deeper into the subject by comparing plumbers grease vs silicone grease.


  What are the uses of steel plates?
Posté par : ting188a - Aujourd’hui, 01:33 AM - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

What are the uses of steel plates?


    Steel plate construction is generally double the speed of other strengthened solid construction since it abstains from tying rebar and building structures nearby. The equal plate gatherings can be built rapidly in specific off-site creations. The technique has superb quality in light of the fact that the steel is on the outside, where tensile forces are often greatest. The steel construction industry requires numerous kinds of steel in all sizes. Steel plates can be found in structures, bridges, tall structures and construction vehicles. Steel plates can be made by enormous steel manufacturing plants or littler, progressively specific plants.  Steel plates  are one of the numerous sorts of steel that can be created, different sorts incorporate steel bars, sheets, sections, rolls, and the sky's the limit from there. Steel plates are regularly utilized for structural and construction applications, pressure vessels, marine and offshore equipment, and military applications. The grade, components and parameters of a steel plate are additionally utilized.


    Steel plate is a material regularly used to make metal items. Fabricated to various thicknesses and widths, the steel plate is sliced and welded together to make the last item. There are various sorts of the plate, for example, pure and high-carbon steel plates. A few sorts of plate steel are utilized in the construction of buildings structures while others are utilized in the making of regular things, for example, wood heaters, and not all that ordinary things, for example, transport bodies. Steel plate is regularly alluded to as level steel.  Steel plates  are utilized to fabricate present-day shipping so as to make destructive safe high-quality. Run of the mill employments of steel plate includes general manufacture, basic individuals, tall structures, spans, stockpiling tanks and blenders. The flexibility and strength of steel plates make it the ideal material for use in household machines that incorporate stoves and fridges. Applications for steel plate depend intensely on the points of interest of the task. This essentially implies certain evaluations are more fitting to specific assignments than others.


    Steel plate construction is a quick strategy for building constructing heavy reinforced concrete items. At a steel fabricator, gatherings are built. Every gathering has two equal plates together with welded stringers. The assemblies are moved to the place of work and put with a crane. The plates are welded with the goal that they structure equal dividers joined by stringers. At long last, the space between the plate dividers is loaded up with concrete. Steel plate is both erosions and scraped areas safe. It is made to a lot more extensive scope of thicknesses than conventional steel sheets. Plate steel is basically utilized in applications where super-basic structure and indestructible solidness is required. Stainless  steel plates  are additionally simple to shape, have a spotless and alluring appearance, and are moderately light yet entirely tough. These are likewise quite moldable without settling on quality, making it perfect for use with a ton of things. Steel plate is usually used to strengthen foundations and maintain mass units of weight like extensions. Then again, it gives a base to the development of bigger materials and non-serviceable parts.


    Since the construction time is about half, sunk interest costs for heavy construction projects are about half when this technique is utilized. The department of defense regularly requires higher-grade steel plates for use in military vehicles and structures. Steel businesses with military agreements fabricate steel as indicated by the reasons and measures set by the department of defense and its different offices, for example, the army, air force and navy. Military  steel plates  are utilized in tanks, jeeps, trucks and ground vehicles, just as helicopters, planes and other airplanes. The navy utilizes this steel for shipbuilding and maritime fix. Our steel plate is perfect for the accompanying applications: general basic articles, sports arenas, buildings and high rises, bridges and different establishments, reinforcing prerequisites, various overwhelming hardware and earthmovers and bulldozers.


    Stainless Steel Coils


    Temperature Control Compatibility: Yes


    Nichrome is a common material for pre-wrapped RDA coils, but you won't see it often in the world of sub-ohm tanks. When you're shopping for sub-ohm tank coils, kanthal and stainless steel are the materials you're most likely to see. Compared to kanthal, stainless steel has a slightly lower resistance and a slightly faster ramp-up time for a given wire gauge. Unlike some of the other non-kanthal coil materials, people generally find that stainless steel doesn't introduce any off flavors that require getting used to.


    Stainless steel also has the benefit of being an easy material to work with from a tooling standpoint. You can stamp stainless steel into shapes that wouldn't be possible to create with kanthal. In the mid-2010s – before mesh coils became the standard for cloud chasing – manufacturers were experimenting with unusual coils such as “notch coils,” which were cylinders with notches cut out of them. Shapes like that would only be possible with stainless steel.


    One of the most interesting features of stainless-steel coils is that they're the only vape coils that you can use for either wattage-based or temperature control vaping. For temperature control, all that you need is a vaping device that supports stainless-steel coils – which almost all mods built in the last few years do – or allows you to enter a custom TCR.


    Compared to the other two coil materials used for temperature control vaping – nickel and titanium – stainless steel has a significantly lower TCR. That means the material's change in resistance as it's heated is not as easy to measure. Some  vape mods  may not be completely accurate when estimating the temperature of a stainless-steel coil.


    The last thing to consider before you buy a vape tank using stainless-steel coils is that stainless steel does contain a small amount of nickel. If you are allergic to nickel, you'll probably want to avoid  stainless steel and stick with kanthal coils.


    Aluminum Plate Properties and Applications


    Aluminum is corrosion resistant and and virtually maintenance free. It has unbeatable strength to weight ratio when compared to other metals, and weighs in at roughly 1/3 as much as iron, steel, copper, or brass. Aluminum plate has heat conductivity better than any other common metal and conducts electricity comparable to copper products.


    Aluminum is non-toxic and can be used in food preparation equipment. It is non-combustible (does not burn) and has a reflective nature, making it suitable for light fixtures. Some end uses for all grades of aluminum include transportation, food packaging, furniture, electrical applications, building, construction, machinery and equipment. It is interesting to note that aluminum is the most abundant metal element in Earth's crust and makes up about 8% by weight.


    Alro stocks several grades of aluminum plate:


    2024 aluminum plate  is the most widely used aerospace alloy. It has a high yield strength and good fatigue resistance, as well as good machinability and grain structure. 2024 aluminum plate is great for precision fittings and parts, including aircraft fittings, computer parts, and bolts.


    3003 aluminum plate


    3003 aluminum  is the most widely used aluminum alloy. It has excellent workability and corrosion resistance and reacts well to finishing such as laminating or anodizing. It is a non-heat treatable metal. It is typically used for pressure vessels, garage doors, builder’s hardware, and more.


    5052 aluminum plate


    5052 aluminum  is an alloy similar to 3003 aluminum, but with better corrosion resistance and strength. It is typically used for cooking utensils, mailboxes, railings, and more.


    6061 aluminum plate


    6061 aluminum  plate is the most versatile and widely used of heat treat grades. It has excellent machinability, weldability,  and medium strength. (It is less strong when compared to aluminum 2024 and 7075). 6061 aluminum has great welding and brazing abilities due to its high corrosion resistance at all temperatures. Typical applications include pipe fittings and bridge components.


    7075 aluminum plate


    7075 aluminum  is the highest strength aluminum plate that Alro stocks; it has a strength comparable to many steels. This aluminum grade has a relatively high cost, so it is typically used when cheaper alloys aren’t suitable. Typical applications include aircraft fittings, missile parts, bike frames, and more.


    Alumold


    Alumold  aluminum plate is a unique aluminum mold plate that has been successfully substituted for P-20 steel in a multitude of mold applications. It has better thermal conductivity, as well as dimensional stability and consistent through-thickness hardness qualities. Alumold is most commonly used for thermoplastic injection molds for medium to large series.


    Cast Mold Plate


    Cast Mold Plate  is a cast aluminum mold product characterized by an excellent dimensional stability. It can be used to meet a wide range of mold making applications. Alro stocks both 2000 series cast mold plate and 5000 series cast mold plate.


    Cast Aluminum for Tool and Jig Plate


    Alro stocks several different brands of  Cast Aluminum Tool & Jig Plate. This material is produced from a fine-grain aluminum alloy which is free from internal stresses. It is typically used for assembly jigs and fixtures, rubber and plastic molds, prototypes, and more.


    How to Trim Coil PVC


    Trim coil PVC comes in rolls of aluminum sheeting that are usually 50 feet long and 3 feet wide. It is used to create custom trim that covers exterior window frames, door frames, rake boards, gables and other trim items. The PVC is a plastic coating that prevents fading and oxidation. PVC-coated trim coil comes in white or a variety of colors and is used to create a maintenance-free home exterior.


    Examine the existing trim on the house and create a bend pattern with a scrap piece of PVC trim coil. This involves bending a thin strip of metal to match the shape of the current wooden trim.


    Roll 12 feet of PVC trim coil out onto a hard surface and separate it from the remainder of the coil by cutting in a straight line with the razor knife.


    Mark the width of the PVC coil stock with a pencil in 1-foot sections.


    Cut along each 1-foot mark with the razor knife so that three sections are created. Each one will measure 1 foot wide by 12 feet long.


    Use the trim pattern to mark each bend across the width of one PVC coil trim strip. Flatten the pattern and use the indentations as a guideline. Mark outer bends on the top side of the coil stock and inner bends on the bottom side. Mark in three places, at each


    Place the marked PVC coil strip in the coil brake. This is a special tool used to bend a piece of PVC coil strip into a custom piece of trim. It is 12 feet long and mounted on a table or on saw horses. Many equipment rental stores rent brakes by the day or week.


    Stainless Steel All Thread Benefits


    There are many unique values provided by stainless steel threading rod that make it an extremely useful construction and industrial project material. Our stainless steel raw materials and stainless steel threaded rod provide a bevy of benefits that will improve the overall scope of your project. Some of the more predominant benefits of stainless steel threaded rod, include:


   
       
            Corrosion Resistance  - Lower alloyed grades resist corrosion in atmospheric and pure water environments, while high-alloyed grades can resist corrosion in most acids, alkaline solutions, and chlorine bearing environments, properties which are utilized in process plants.
       
   
   
       
            Fire & Heat Resistance  - Special high chromium and nickel-alloyed grades resist scaling and retain strength at high temperatures.
       
   
   
       
            Strength-To-Weight -  The work-hardening property of austenitic grades, that results in a significant strengthening of the material from cold-working alone, and the high strength duplex grades, allow reduced material thickness over conventional grades, therefore cost savings.
       
   
   
       
            Long Term Value -  When the total life cycle costs are considered, stainless is often the least expensive material option.
       
   


    Stainless Steel All Thread Rod Strength


    Stainless steel threaded rod proves, when tested, to be stronger than most Grade 2 steels, but weaker than Grade 5 and Grade 8 stainless steel raw materials that have been hardened. Depending on the ratio of metals in the alloy, the definitive strength of most stainless steel grades will range from about 70 to 220 ksi. In addition, stainless steel threaded rod has less of a magnetic quality than standard steel.


  Home Gym Ideas For Kids
Posté par : ting188a - Aujourd’hui, 01:26 AM - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

Home Gym Ideas For Kids


    Keeping kids active is an ongoing challenge, especially in the era of smartphones and video games. Although many families build  playground equipment  in their backyards,  some climates are too rainy,  cold, or hot  to allow year-round use outdoors.


    Indoor gyms are an excellent solution for kids, and they can be customized to  suit their age and interests. It's easy to install a few basic pieces in the corner of a playroom or the basement.


    The focus for  kids gym equipment  needs to be a  balance of fun,  safety,  and developmentally-appropriate activities. Some equipment choices depend on the child's age, but many items can grow with the child for at least a few years. Here are eight great home gym ideas to  keep your children happy and healthy.


    Small Trampolines


    Trampolines  are both easy and fun for children of all ages to manage. Children  under the age of five will require supervision  to make sure they consistently jump vertically, but once they have the hang of it, they can use it on their own.


    Trampolines help  build leg and core muscles  and are also a good test of kids' balance. If you have more than one child using the gym, make sure they understand that only  one child uses each small trampoline at one time. You may want to buy a second one if needed to avoid conflict, but make sure to keep them a few feet away from each other to  avoid collisions.


    Climbing Ropes


    Thick ropes with a few knots in them are perfect for kids who love climbing. They provide  a good workout for the entire body, especially if you increase the distance between knots over time.


    Keep in mind that climbing ropes can be a challenge for kids of any age who lack the  upper-body strength  to do them at first. Kids may need lots of prompting to practice using it if they can't manage it the first few times. However, once they hit second or third grade, they should manage the rope like a pro.


    Monkey Bars


    Monkey bars  are generally easier for kids than climbing ropes because kids have to move themselves sideways, not upward, and can use their swinging motion to build momentum. However, monkey bars still  build excellent upper body strength and hand-eye coordination.


    Monkey bars for children up to third grade should be  no higher than 5 ft. off the floor  to  help prevent serious head injuries. If you decide to build your own monkey bars, make sure the bars are  spaced no more than 1 ft. apart  so your children can swing across safely.


    Reviewing The Best Gymnastics Bars For Kids 


    Gymnastics bars are great tools for channeling children's energy into something productive and healthy. Children are known to have an endless supply of energy, and a gymnastics bar gives them the needed platform to use their energy exhaustively. Our team extensively reviewed the available gymnastics bars to bring you the finest gymnastics bars in 2022. These bars were selected based on criteria like ease of use, flexibility, and stability. Gymnastics bars are not only meant for kids that have an interest in gymnastics, but also for kids who need something to play around with at home. Kids do not require elaborate gymnastics skills to use them, but you should still always be mindful of your child's safety. Gymnastics bars create a balance between fun and exercising for kids. Also, they make for a great birthday present.


    The Shiwei gymnastics bar allows kids to have fun without worrying about weight. It supports up to 330 lbs of weight and can extend to 5 feet in height, hence it can be used by almost any kid regardless of their weight or height. It’s made of fiberglass material that is lightweight yet sturdy, allowing you to move the bar easily and providing long-lasting durability. Also, it comes in both pink and blue color options, so you can pick a color that you believe would appeal to your child the most.


    The Tepemccu gymnastics bar features a foldable design that makes it easy to move the unit around and also requires little storage space. The bar is easy to set up, and the heights are adjustable to five varying lengths to suit the user (maximum height at 50.8″). Plus, it supports up to 140lbs in weight, making it suitable for use by most kids. There are four anti-slip foam rings at the base that provide enhanced stability to the structure, prevent slippage, and protect the floor against scratching. 


    Ballet-Inspired Barre Classes


    How It Works


   
        Pliés, relevés, and sauté jumps don’t just look graceful, the ballet moves also lengthen and strengthen muscles and burn calories.
   
   
        ballet-inspired classes like Pure Barre, Bar Method, and Balletone are a popular workout trend that incorporates moves from ballet, Pilates, and yoga to upbeat music.
   
   
        Many gyms offer ballet-inspired fitness classes, and barre studios offer classes for overall conditioning as well as targeted workouts for abs, thighs, or glutes. There are even “barre light” classes for beginners.
   
   
        You don’t need a tutu or ballet slippers. Instead, dress in comfortable workout clothes and show up to the 60-minute classes prepared to use the ballet barre to do the movements your teacher shows you.
   
   
        Some classes also use small balls, resistance bands, and hand weights to do floor work. The low-impact workout focuses on proper alignment.
   
   
        The classes blend cardio, strength training, flexibility, balance and core conditioning in a total body workout that targets the hips, glutes, abs, and arms.
   


   
        Intensity Level: Medium
   
   
        The emphasis on proper alignment, balance, and core engagement means the classes move at a slower pace. You might not leave a ballet-inspired class drenched in sweat, but you’ll feel the burn after a class thanks to moves that target specific muscle groups.
   


   
        Areas It Targets
   
   
        Core:  Yes. You'll do a combination of ballet positions and Pilates moves to target the abs.
   
   
        Arms:  Yes. Classes include exercises like military presses, lateral arm raises, and triceps lifts to work the arm muscles.
   
   
        Legs:  Yes. Expect to perform movements like pliés, dégagé, leg lifts/extensions, and other ballet-inspired moves that target the legs.
   
   
        Glutes:  Yes. Targeted moves like glute raises help tone the backside.
   
   
        Back:  No. Ballet-inspired workouts target the whole body but do not target the back muscles, except for those that are part of your core.
   


   
        Type
   
   
        Flexibility:  Yes. This ballet-inspired workout will gently improve your flexibility.
Aerobic:  No. The barre moves are too slow to give you an aerobic workout. So unless you're in a class that includes exercises off the barre that gets your heart rate going, don't count this as cardio.
Strength:  Yes. Some ballet and barre classes use weights and resistance bands, and others use your body weight to strengthen and tone.
   
   
        Sport:  No. It’s not a sport.
Low-Impact:  Yes. There is no jumping or bouncing in barre classes, so the workout is easy on the joints.
   
   
        Great Benefits of a Stationary Bike Workout
   
   
        Riding a stationary exercise bike is an efficient and effective way to burn calories and body fat while strengthening your heart, lungs, and muscles.
   
   
        Compared to some other types of cardio equipment, a stationary bicycle puts less stress on your joints, but it still provides an excellent aerobic workout.
   
   
        Read on to learn more about the benefits of a stationary bike workout, and the kinds of workout plans that can help you reach your fitness or weight loss goals.
   
   
        1. Boosts cardio fitness
   
   
        Cycling is an excellent way to get your heart pumping.
   
   
        Cardiovascular or  aerobic workouts, such as cycling, strengthen your heart, lungs, and muscles. They also improve the flow of blood and oxygen throughout your body. This, in turn, can benefit your health in a number of ways, including:
   
   
       
           
                improved memory and brain functioning
           
       
       
           
                lower blood pressure
           
       
       
           
                better sleep
           
       
       
           
                improved blood sugar levels
           
       
       
           
                a stronger immune system
           
       
       
           
                better mood
           
       
       
           
                lower stress levels
           
       
       
           
                more energy
           
       
   
   
        2. Can help with weight loss
   
   
        Depending on the intensity of your workout and your body weight, you can burn more than  600 calories an hour  with a stationary bike workout. This makes indoor cycling an excellent workout option for burning calories quickly.
   
   
        Burning more calories than you consume is the key to weight loss.
   
   
        3. Burns body fat
   
   
        Working out at a high intensity helps to burn calories and build strength, which, in turn, can lead to fat loss.
   
   
        A 
       
            2010 studyTrusted Source
          found that indoor cycling, combined with a low-calorie diet, was effective in reducing body weight and body fat in the study’s participants. It was also effective in lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The participants cycled for 45 minutes three times per week, and they consumed 1,200 calories per day for 12 weeks.
   
   
        4. Provides a low-impact workout
   
   
        A stationary bike workout is a low-impact workout that uses smooth movements to strengthen bones and joints without putting much pressure on them. This makes it a good workout option for people with joint issues or injuries.
   
   
        Your ankles, knees, hips, and other joints can be put under a lot of stress when running, jogging, jumping, or doing other high-impact aerobic exercises.
   
   
        Because your feet don’t lift off the pedals with a stationary bike, this option is kinder to your joints, but it still provides a challenging and effective workout.
   
   
        Magnetic Resistance vs. Other Types of Resistance for Cycle Bikes - Which is Best for You?
   
   
   
       
   
   
        When looking to purchase a cycle bike, you have a wide variety of options to choose from. One of the best factors for narrowing your selection is determining the type of resistance best for you whether that be  magnetic resistance,  contact resistance, or air resistance. In this article we'll go over the specifics of each type of resistance, so you can make the best choice for you.
   
   
        Magnetic resistance uses magnets to create tension against the flywheel. Unlike contact resistance, the magnets don't actually make contact with the flywheel. Instead, the magnetic force applies varying degrees of resistance as the magnets gets closer or further away from the flywheel. Magnetic resistance can be adjusted either by twisting a micro-tension knob or electronically through set levels on a digital monitor.
   
   
        Magnets create incredibly strong forces, meaning the resistance you'll feel with a magnetic resistance bike is strong, although it can always be adjusted if you're looking for an easier ride. A magnetic resistance cycle bike is sure to provide challenge throughout your fitness journey.


  Sometimes these are a pain to clean.
Posté par : Tting187 - 05-20-2022, 08:24 AM - Forum : Garry's Mod - Pas de réponse

Do you really need a stand mixer? Yes, and here's why


    True story: A long time ago, as a lowly magazine assistant with the ink still drying on my grad school degree, I dreamed of a promotion beyond my usual duties of grabbing lunch for my bosses and answering reader mail. When the day finally came and I got my own cubicle, a new title on my business card, and a RAISE, I didn't splurge on Louboutins or a Louis Vuitton tote. (Those came later.) Instead, I marched myself over to Williams-Sonoma and got myself a tangerine stand mixer.


    More than a decade later, the stand mixer is still one of my best friends in the kitchen, taking pride of place on the counter and outlasting the fancy bags and shoes collecting dust in my closet. If you want a splurge that actually pays off, a stand mixer is your best bet.


    If you're mentally picturing a stand mixer, chances are what you're thinking of is the KitchenAid version — like Kleenex and Q-Tips, the brand name has become the industry standard descriptor, likely much to the chagrin of Breville, Cuisinart, et al. As of 2014, KitchenAid was  selling more than 2.5 million stand mixers annually, so for all intents and purposes, that's probably the only brand you've encountered. A stand mixer combines heavy duty steel construction and a powerful motor to make it an indispensable tool for both bakers and cooks alike.


    Essentially, a stand mixer is an extra pair of big, beefy arms in your kitchen. Use it wherever you could use a helper to do a mixing task while you busy yourself with another part of the recipe at hand. It's more efficient and better at evenly combining ingredients than a human could ever be; it cuts down on your prep time; and it's built to last. (Yes, as a professional cook, I actually own two stand mixers: the everyday 5-quart KitchenAid Artisan, and the big, badass 7-quart Pro Line version with 1.3 horsepower under the hood.)
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    What's a stand mixer good for?


    A basic
stand mixer comes with three blade attachments: a beater, a whisk and a dough hook. Which one you want to use depends on your desired outcome:


    ? Use the flat beater for most tasks, including mixing cookie and cake batters and frostings; for shredding pulled pork or chicken; for mixing meatloaf or meatballs if you don't want to touch it with your hands; and for blending both sweet and savory ingredients, such as incorporating butter into warm citrus curd or mashing boiled potatoes with butter and milk for a creamy comfort meal.


    ? Use the whisk for beating eggs and cream into fluffy peaks, and if you take it even further, for making marshmallow fluff and homemade butter without lifting a finger. (OK, except for the finger you use to flick the power on.)


    ? Use the dough hook for kneading any kind of dough you can imagine, from stiff baguette dough and whole grain rolls to soft, pliant pizza dough and cinnamon buns.


    Like a Vitamix, the price of a stand mixer essentially correlates to the horsepower you're purchasing. You're buying a powerful motor, so there's no reason to relegate it just to mixing and whipping duties. That's where the attachments come in.


    At the very least, get a second beater blade with a silicone scraper edge. This tool should, in my opinion, come standard with every mixer — it scrapes the bowl as you mix, making it even more effective at creaming butter and sugar together, folding dry ingredients like flour and cocoa powder into your batter, and generally keeping everything well-blended.


    If you want to go further, you can get attachments that will roll and cut pasta, grind meat, take the place of a food processor for shredding, slicing, and dicing, spiralize fruits and vegetables and even make ice cream. Each add-on isn't cheap, to be sure, but consider the ease in which you can make piles of pappardelle or stacks of spiralized sweet potatoes.


    The Best Stand Mixers for Every Kind of Baker, According to Thousands of Reviews


    For home bakers and professionals alike, a sturdy stand mixer is key. The appliance is adaptable enough to whip up everything from airy layer cakes to stiff bread dough, and it cuts down on the time and effort of mixing by hand. What's more, many stand mixers include accessories to tackle other kitchen projects, like from-scratch pasta, DIY ice cream, and freshly squeezed juice.


    But like other  powerful kitchen appliances, electric stand mixers are an investment. Quality machines retail for hundreds of dollars, and high-end brands can cost more than $1,000. Plus, there are tons of options to choose from, ranging from budget-friendly basics to feature-rich models with stylish hues and designs. So if you're considering buying a stand mixer of your own, it can be a challenge to find the right fit.


    How to Choose the Best Kitchen Mixer


    While it's entirely possible to make most of the things you'd want to cook or bake without a mixer, why bother? With a mixer, you can save time on many of your current favorite go-to recipes and probably find yourself trying out all new foods you wouldn't have thought to make before. And unless you're especially vigilante when you stir things by hand, a mixer will almost certainly mean better textures and consistency for many of the things you make.


    For anybody who bakes regularly (and many people that don't),  kitchen mixers  are the kind of item that you only think you can live without until you've had one. Once you get used to owning one, the idea of going back to mixing everything manually seems crazy.


    That means there are two main categories of consumers for mixers:


    Those that are buying a mixer for the first time and are unsure of what to really look for.


    Those looking to replace a beloved mixer that recently stopped working (RIP).


    Whichever category you fall into, our buyer's guide to mixers should serve as a useful guide in gaining a clear idea of the kind of options are available on the market and which one right for you.


    Types of Mixers


    The first decision you need to make in order to choose the right mixer is which of the two main types to go with.


    Hand Mixers


    Hand Mixer


    Click Here to View All Hand Mixers


    If your main priorities are affordability or finding a mixer that won't take up much space, hand mixers are likely to fit the bill. They have a simpler design than stand mixers, can usually easily fit in a drawer in your kitchen, and can cost less than $20.


    You have two choices with hand mixers: electric hand mixers and rotary hand mixers (sometimes called eggbeaters). With rotary models, you use a lever to do the mixing. With electric hand mixers, all you have to do is hold the mixer in place while the movement happens automatically.


    On the spectrum of how much easier a mixer can make your life, hand mixers fall firmly in the middle. They're faster and easier than stirring dough by hand, but require more work and time than using a stand mixer.


    Benefits:


    Hand mixers are more affordable.


    These kitchen mixers do not take up any counter space.


    Clean up is easy and quick.


    You can use any bowl.


    Portable.


    To Keep in Mind:


    Hand mixers involve a little bit of manual work.


    Usually not as fast or thorough as stand mixers.


    These mixers tend to be somewhat messy.


    Stand Mixers


    Green Stand Mixer


    Click Here to View All Stand Mixers


    Usually if you hear someone talk about not being able to live without their mixer, they're talking about stand mixers. Stand mixers make the process of baking or mixing just about anything considerably easier. They're especially useful for any baking that involves thick dough, like bread or pizza dough, or recipes that require trickier mixing duties like making meatballs.


    Stand mixers typically come with a large mixing bowl and several different attachments designed for specific types of mixing – you'd use a different attachment for making meringue than you would for making bread, for instance. Because they're stationary, you can start mixing something and leave it while you work on gathering other ingredients. For recipes that call for adding ingredients while you mix, a task that's nearly impossible for one person to accomplish without a mixer, they make it a breeze.


    One of the main inconveniences of a stand mixer is the size and weight. If you don't have the space to keep it on the counter, you may begrudge the process of getting a heavy stand mixer in and out of a kitchen cabinet.


    Benefits:


    Stand mixers are more powerful than a hand mixer.


    These units will mix faster and more thoroughly.


    Since it's stationary, you can start it mixing and leave to work on other things.


    Usually stand mixers come with (or you can buy) different attachments designed to achieve the best results for various types of mixing.


    Some stand mixers allow you to make pasta, ravioli, juice, sauce, ice cream or even mill grain.


    To Keep in Mind:


    This type of mixer costs more than hand mixers.


    Takes up a lot of counter space.


    Takes up more kitchen storage space.


    Sometimes these are a pain to clean.


    For the dedicated baker, there's really no reason you should have to choose between the two. Hand mixers are affordable enough that, even if you've decided to invest in a stand mixer, you can easily grab a hand mixer as well. That way, you can turn to the smaller tool for your more minor mixing needs rather than having to pull out and clean the stand mixer for every recipe.
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